This study is based on interviews, fieldwork, survey of literature and theoretical insights. Dharamsala (Himachal Pradesh), Dehradun (Uttarakhand), Mundgod (Karnataka), Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir), Tawangand Kameng (Arunachal Pradesh), Gangtok (Sikkim), Bodh Gaya , Rajgir and Nalandan (Bihar) and Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh) were visited.many experts in premier Chinese research institutions in Shanghai, Beijing, Sichuan and Guangzhou wereconsulted. Their views have been included. Assessment of this work is based on field work and open access. No inputs from Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), Intelligence Bureau (IB), Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) and the like were sought. The research was bottom-up through field visits, interaction with Tibetans, survey of literature
and interactions with scholars at the IDSA and outside.