it could be larger. Islamabad is producing fissile material, adding to related production facilities,
and deploying additional delivery vehicles. These steps could enable Pakistan to undertake both
quantitative and qualitative improvements to its nuclear arsenal. Whether and to what extent
Pakistan’s current expansion of its nuclear weapons-related facilities is a response to the 2008
U.S.-India nuclear cooperation agreement is unclear. Islamabad does not have a public, detailed
nuclear doctrine, but its “minimum credible deterrent” is widely regarded as designed to dissuade
India from taking military action against Pakistan.