power. For 18 days, a popular peaceful uprising spread across Egypt and ultimately forced
Mubarak to cede power to the military. In the wake of Mubarak’s resignation, a Supreme Council
of the Armed Forces (SCAF)—made up entirely of military officers who enjoyed leading
positions under Mubarak—has exercised executive authority directly and via an interim cabinet.
The SCAF oversaw a March 2011 referendum that approved amendments to Egypt’s constitution,
issued a constitutional declaration, and has also issued new laws on the formation of political
parties and the conduct of parliamentary elections. The amended constitution lays out a transition
framework in which the elected People’s Assembly and Shura Council will, in conjunction with
the SCAF, select members for a 100-person constituent assembly to draft a new constitution
subject to a referendum.