Hazara minority of Afghanistan. Human security is a relatively new concept over which there is
considerable debate and this thesis presents a discussion of various debates regarding human
security and peacekeeping before taking a firm stance in the debates, emphasizing the
importance of investing in the human security of marginalized groups in non-Western societies.
The case of the human security of the Hazara has never been researched before and this thesis
therefore represents a unique case study. This thesis finds that there are four clearly identifiable
factors which have led to a lack of investment in the Hazara, namely: the inaccessibility of their
native region, the Hazarajat, continued discrimination against them, the militarization of aid,
and the top-down, donor-driven nature of aid in Afghanistan. The effects of this lack of
investment manifest themselves both domestically within Afghanistan and internationally, with
thousands of Hazaras emigrating to other countries, which emphasize the importance of a
bottom-up human security approach to peacebuilding which involves an understanding of the
socio-political situation on the ground.